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2024-7-13 13:52:42

Rivetti AV Jr, Reischak D, de Oliveira CHS, Otaka. Phylodynamics of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses from Outbreaks in Brazil. Virus Res . 2024 Jun 14:199415.
submited by kickingbird at Jun, 17, 2024 18:55 PM from Virus Res . 2024 Jun 14:199415.

Our study identified strains of the A/H5N1 virus in analyzed samples of subsistence poultry, wild birds, and mammals, belonging to clade, genotype B3.2, with very high genetic similarity to strains from Chile, Uruguay, and Argentina. This suggests a migratory route for wild birds across the Pacific, explaining the phylogenetic relatedness. The Brazilian samples displayed similarity to strains that had already been previously detected in South America. Phylogeographic analysis suggests transmission of US viruses from Europe and Asia, co-circulating with other lineages in the American continent. As mutations can influence virulence and host specificity, genomic surveillance is essential to detect those changes, especially in critical regions, such as hot spots in the HA, NA, and PB2 sequences. Mutations in the PB2 gene (D701N and Q591K) associated with adaptation and transmission in mammals were detected suggesting a potential zoonotic risk. Nonetheless, resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) was not identified, however, continued surveillance is crucial to detect potential resistance. Our study also mapped the spread of the virus in the Southern hemisphere, identifying possible entry routes and highlighting the importance of surveillance to prevent outbreaks and protect both human and animal populations.

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