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2024-7-13 15:18:11

Le Sage V, Rockey NC, French AJ, McBride R, McCart. Potential pandemic risk of circulating swine H1N2 influenza viruses. Nat Commun. 2024 Jun 13;15(1):5025
submited by kickingbird at Jun, 15, 2024 7:13 AM from Nat Commun. 2024 Jun 13;15(1):5025

Influenza A viruses in swine have considerable genetic diversity and continue to pose a pandemic threat to humans due to a potential lack of population level immunity. Here we describe a pipeline to characterize and triage influenza viruses for their pandemic risk and examine the pandemic potential of two widespread swine origin viruses. Our analysis reveals that a panel of human sera collected from healthy adults in 2020 has no cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against a α-H1 clade strain (α-swH1N2) but do against a γ-H1 clade strain. The α-swH1N2 virus replicates efficiently in human airway cultures and exhibits phenotypic signatures similar to the human H1N1 pandemic strain from 2009 (H1N1pdm09). Furthermore, α-swH1N2 is capable of efficient airborne transmission to both na?ve ferrets and ferrets with prior seasonal influenza immunity. Ferrets with H1N1pdm09 pre-existing immunity show reduced α-swH1N2 viral shedding and less severe disease signs. Despite this, H1N1pdm09-immune ferrets that became infected via the air can still onward transmit α-swH1N2 with an efficiency of 50%. These results indicate that this α-swH1N2 strain has a higher pandemic potential, but a moderate level of impact since there is reduced replication fitness and pathology in animals with prior immunity.

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