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2024-5-30 15:37:33

Azeem, S.; Baroch, J.; Tewari, D.; Pabilonia, K.L.. Molecular Characterization of Non-H5 and Non-H7 Avian Influenza Viruses from Non-Mallard Migratory Waterbirds of the North American Flyways, 2006~2011. Pathogens 2024, 13, 333
submited by kickingbird at Apr, 23, 2024 10:48 AM from Pathogens 2024, 13, 333

The surveillance of migratory waterbirds (MWs) for avian influenza virus (AIV) is indispensable for the early detection of a potential AIV incursion into poultry. Surveying AIV infections and virus subtypes in understudied MW species could elucidate their role in AIV ecology. Oropharyngeal–cloacal (OPC) swabs were collected from non-mallard MWs between 2006 and 2011. OPC swabs (n = 1158) that molecularly tested positive for AIV (Cts ≤ 32) but tested negative for H5 and H7 subtypes were selected for virus isolation (VI). The selected samples evenly represented birds from all four North American flyways (Pacific, Central, Mississippi, and Atlantic). Eighty-seven low pathogenic AIV isolates, representing 31 sites in 17 states, were recovered from the samples. All isolates belonged to the North American lineage. The samples representing birds from the Central Flyway had the highest VI positive rate (57.5%) compared to those from the other flyways (10.3–17.2%), suggesting that future surveillance can focus on the Central Flyway. Of the isolates, 43.7%, 12.6%, and 10.3% were obtained from blue-winged teal, American wigeon, and American black duck species, respectively. Hatch-year MWs represented the majority of the isolates (70.1%). The most common H and N combinations were H3N8 (23.0%), H4N6 (18.4%), and H4N8 (18.4%). The HA gene between non-mallard and mallard MW isolates during the same time period shared 85.5–99.5% H3 identity and 89.3–99.7% H4 identity. Comparisons between MW (mallard and non-mallard) and poultry H3 and H4 isolates also revealed high similarity (79.0–99.0% and 88.7–98.4%), emphasizing the need for continued AIV surveillance in MWs.

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