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2024-5-30 14:32:39

Murashkina, T.; Sharshov, K.; Gadzhiev, A.; Pether. Avian Influenza Virus and Avian Paramyxoviruses in Wild Waterfowl of the Western Coast of the Caspian Sea (2017–2020). Viruses 2024, 16, 598
submited by kickingbird at Apr, 14, 2024 9:56 AM from Viruses 2024, 16, 598

The flyways of many different wild waterfowl pass through the Caspian Sea region. The western coast of the middle Caspian Sea is an area with many wetlands, where wintering grounds with large concentrations of birds are located. It is known that wild waterfowl are a natural reservoir of the influenza A virus. In the mid-2000s, in the north of this region, the mass deaths of swans, gulls, and pelicans from high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) were noted. At present, there is still little known about the presence of avian influenza virus (AIVs) and different avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) in the region’s waterfowl bird populations. Here, we report the results of monitoring these viruses in the wild waterfowl of the western coast of the middle Caspian Sea from 2017 to 2020. Samples from 1438 individuals of 26 bird species of 7 orders were collected, from which 21 strains of AIV were isolated, amounting to a 1.46% isolation rate of the total number of samples analyzed (none of these birds exhibited external signs of disease). The following subtypes were determined and whole-genome nucleotide sequences of the isolated strains were obtained: H1N1 (n = 2), H3N8 (n = 8), H4N6 (n = 2), H7N3 (n = 2), H8N4 (n = 1), H10N5 (n = 1), and H12N5 (n = 1). No high pathogenicity influenza virus H5 subtype was detected. Phylogenetic analysis of AIV genomes did not reveal any specific pattern for viruses in the Caspian Sea region, showing that all segments belong to the Eurasian clades of classic avian-like influenza viruses. We also did not find the amino acid substitutions in the polymerase complex (PA, PB1, and PB2) that are critical for the increase in virulence or adaptation to mammals. In total, 23 hemagglutinating viruses not related to influenza A virus were also isolated, of which 15 belonged to avian paramyxoviruses. We were able to sequence 12 avian paramyxoviruses of three species, as follows: Newcastle disease virus (n = 4); Avian paramyxovirus 4 (n = 5); and Avian paramyxovirus 6 (n = 3). In the Russian Federation, the Newcastle disease virus of the VII.1.1 sub-genotype was first isolated from a wild bird (common pheasant) in the Caspian Sea region. The five avian paramyxovirus 4 isolates obtained belonged to the common clade in Genotype I, whereas phylogenetic analysis of three isolates of Avian paramyxovirus 6 showed that two isolates, isolated in 2017, belonged to Genotype I and that an isolate identified in 2020 belonged to Genotype II. The continued regular monitoring of AIVs and APMVs, the obtaining of data on the biological properties of isolated strains, and the accumulation of information on virus host species will allow for the adequate planning of epidemiological measures, suggest the most likely routes of spread of the virus, and assist in the prediction of the introduction of the viruses in the western coastal region of the middle Caspian Sea.

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