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2024-4-15 15:42:28

Katayama M, Murakami S, Ishida H, Matsugo H, Sekin. Antigenic commonality and divergence of hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion protein among influenza D virus lineages revealed using epitope mapping. J Virol. 2024 Feb 12:e0190823
submited by kickingbird at Feb, 13, 2024 8:29 AM from J Virol. 2024 Feb 12:e0190823

Influenza D virus (IDV) is one of the causative agents of bovine respiratory disease complex, which is the most common and economically burdensome disease affecting the cattle industry, and the need for an IDV vaccine has been proposed to enhance disease control. IDVs are classified into five genetic lineages based on the coding sequences of the hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HEF) protein, an envelope glycoprotein, which is the main target of protective antibodies against IDV infection. Herein, we prepared a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the HEF protein of viruses of various lineages to investigate the antigenic characteristics of IDVs and found that the mAbs could be largely separated into three groups. The first, second, and third groups demonstrated lineage-specific reactivity, cross-reactivity to viruses of multiple but not all lineages, and cross-reactivity to viruses of all lineages, respectively. Analyzing the escape mutant viruses from virus-neutralizing mAbs revealed that the receptor-binding region of the HEF molecule harbors virus-neutralizing epitopes that are conserved across multiple lineage viruses. In contrast, the apex region of the molecule possessed epitopes unique to each lineage virus. Furthermore, reverse genetics-generated recombinant viruses with point mutations revealed that amino acids within positions 210-214 of the HEF protein determined the antigenic specificity of each lineage virus. Taken together, this study reveals considerable antigenic variation among IDV lineages, although they are presumed to form a single serotype in terms of HEF antigenicity. Characterization of the antigenic epitope structure of HEF may contribute to selecting and creating effective vaccine viruses against IDV.IMPORTANCEInfluenza D viruses (IDVs) are suggested to create cross-reactive single serotypes in hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HEF) antigenicity, as indicated by serological analyses among distinct HEF lineage viruses. This is supported by the high identities of HEF gene sequences among strains, unlike the hemagglutinin (HA) genes of the influenza A virus that exhibit HA subtypes. Herein, we analyzed HEF antigenicity using a monoclonal antibody panel prepared from several virus lineages and found the existence of lineage-conserved and lineage-specific epitopes in HEF molecules. These findings confirm the HEF commonality and divergence among IDVs and provide useful information for constructing a vaccine containing a recombinant IDV virus with an engineered HEF gene, thereby leading to broad immunogenicity.

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