Wang Y, Wang X, Jia X, Li J, Fu J, Huang X, Cui X,. Influenza vaccination features revealed by a single-cell transcriptome atlas. J Med Virol. 2022 Sep 26
Emerging and re-emerging viruses like influenza virus pose a continuous global public health threat. Vaccines are one of the most effective public health strategies for controlling infectious diseases. However, little is known about the immunological features of vaccination at the single-cell resolution, including for influenza vaccination. Here, we report the single-cell transcriptome atlas of longitudinally collected PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) in individuals immunized with an inactivated influenza vaccine. Overall, vaccination with the influenza vaccine only had a small impact on the composition of peripheral immune cells, but elicited global transcriptional changes in multiple immune cell subsets. In plasma and B cell subsets, transcriptomic changes, which were mostly involved in antibody production as well as B cell activation and differentiation, were observed after influenza vaccinations. In influenza-vaccinated individuals, we found a reduction in multiple biological processes (e.g., interferon response, inflammatory response, HLA-I/II molecules, cellular apoptosis, migration and cytotoxicity, etc.) 7 days post-vaccination in multiple immune cell subsets. However, 14 days post-vaccination, these levels returned to similar levels observed in pre-vaccination samples. Additionally, we did not observe significant upregulation of pro-inflammatory response genes and key thrombosis-related genes in influenza-vaccinated individuals. Taken together, we report a cell atlas of the peripheral immune response to influenza vaccination and provide a resource for understanding the immunological response mechanisms of influenza vaccination.
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