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2022-8-9 22:07:39

Neveau MN, Zeller MA, Kaplan BS, Souza CK, Gauger. Genetic and Antigenic Characterization of an Expanding H3 Influenza A Virus Clade in U.S. Swine Visualized by Nextstrain. mSphere. 2022 Jun 29;7(3):e0099421
submited by kickingbird at Jul, 1, 2022 17:31 PM from mSphere. 2022 Jun 29;7(3):e0099421

Defining factors that influence spatial and temporal patterns of influenza A virus (IAV) is essential to inform vaccine strain selection and strategies to reduce the spread of potentially zoonotic swine-origin IAV. The relative frequency of detection of the H3 phylogenetic clade 1990.4.a (colloquially known as C-IVA) in U.S. swine declined to 7% in 2017 but increased to 32% in 2019. We conducted phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses to determine putative mechanisms associated with increased detection. We created an implementation of Nextstrain to visualize the emergence, spatial spread, and genetic evolution of H3 IAV in swine, identifying two C-IVA clades that emerged in 2017 and cocirculated in multiple U.S. states. Phylodynamic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene documented low relative genetic diversity from 2017 to 2019, suggesting clonal expansion. The major H3 C-IVA clade contained an N156H amino acid substitution, but hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays demonstrated no significant antigenic drift. The minor HA clade was paired with the neuraminidase (NA) clade N2-2002B prior to 2016 but acquired and maintained an N2-2002A in 2016, resulting in a loss of antigenic cross-reactivity between N2-2002B- and -2002A-containing H3N2 strains. The major C-IVA clade viruses acquired a nucleoprotein (NP) of the H1N1pdm09 lineage through reassortment in the replacement of the North American swine-lineage NP. Instead of genetic or antigenic diversity within the C-IVA HA, our data suggest that population immunity to H3 2010.1 along with the antigenic diversity of the NA and the acquisition of the H1N1pdm09 NP gene likely explain the reemergence and transmission of C-IVA H3N2 in swine. IMPORTANCE Genetically distinct clades of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine undermine efforts to control the disease. Swine producers commonly use vaccines, and vaccine strains are selected by identifying the most common hemagglutinin (HA) gene from viruses detected in a farm or a region. In 2019, we identified an increase in the detection frequency of an H3 phylogenetic clade, C-IVA, which was previously circulating at much lower levels in U.S. swine. Our study identified genetic and antigenic factors contributing to its resurgence by linking comprehensive phylodynamic analyses with empirical wet-lab experiments and visualized these evolutionary analyses in a Nextstrain implementation. The contemporary C-IVA HA genes did not demonstrate an increase in genetic diversity or significant antigenic changes. N2 genes did demonstrate antigenic diversity, and the expanding C-IVA clade acquired a nucleoprotein (NP) gene segment via reassortment. Virus phenotype and vaccination targeting prior dominant HA clades likely contributed to the clade´s success.

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