Lin J, Xia J, Zhang T, Zhang K, Yang Q. Genome-wide profiling of microRNAs reveals novel insights into the interactions between H9N2 avian influenza virus and avian dendritic cells. Oncogene. 2018 May 10
The antigen-presenting ability of dendritic cells (DCs) plays an important and irreplaceable role in recognising and clearing viruses. Antiviral responses must rapidly defend against infection while minimising inflammatory damage, but the mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of response within an infected cell are not well understood. MicroRNAs (microRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, can regulate mouse or avian DCs to inhibit the infection and replication of avian influenza virus (AIV). Here, we performed a global analysis to understand how avian DCs respond to H9N2 AIV and provide a potential mechanism to explain how avian microRNAs can defend against H9N2 AIV replication. First, we found that both active and inactive H9N2 AIV enhanced the ability of DCs to present antigens and activate T lymphocytes. Next, total microarray analyses suggested that H9N2 AIV stimulation involved protein localisation, nucleotide binding, leucocyte transendothelial migration and MAPK signalling. Moreover, we constructed 551 transcription factor (TF)-miRNA-mRNA loops based on the above analyses. Furthermore, we found that the haemagglutinin (HA) fragment, neither H5N1-HA or H9N2-HA, could not activate DCs, while truncated HA greatly increased the immune function of DCs by activating ERK and STAT3 signalling pathways. Lastly, our results not only suggested that gga-miR1644 targets muscleblind-like protein 2 (MBNL2) to enhance the ability of avian DCs to inhibit virus replication, but also suggested that gga-miR6675 targets the nuclear localisation sequence of polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1) to trigger the silencing of PB1 genes, resulting in the inhibition of H9N2 AIV replication. Altogether, our innovative study will shed new light on the role of avian microRNAs in evoking avian DCs and inhibiting virus replication.
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