Secreted phospholipase PLA2G2E contributes to regulation of T cell immune response against influenza virus infection

The involvement of secreted phospholipase A2s in respiratory diseases, such as asthma and respiratory viral infections, is well-established. However, the specific role of secreted phospholipase A2 group IIE (PLA2G2E) during influenza virus infection remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the role of PLA2G2E during H1N1 influenza virus infection using a targeted mouse model lacking Pla2g2e gene (Pla2g2e-/-). Our findings demonstrated that Pla2g2e-/- mice had significantly lower survival rates and higher viral loads in lungs compared to wild-type mice following influenza virus infection. While Pla2g2e-/- mice displayed comparable innate and humoral immune responses to influenza virus challenge, the animals showed impaired influenza-specific cellular immunity and reduced T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. This indicates that PLA2G2E is involved in regulating specific T cell responses during influenza virus infection. Furthermore, transgenic mice expressing the human PLA2G2E gene exhibited resistance to influenza virus infection along with enhanced influenza-specific cellular immunity and T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Pla2g2e deficiency resulted in perturbation of lipid mediators in the lung and T cells, potentially contributing to its impact on the anti-influenza immune response. Taken together, these findings suggest that targeting PLA2G2E could hold potential as a therapeutic strategy for managing influenza virus infections.IMPORTANCEThe influenza virus is a highly transmissible respiratory pathogen that continues to pose a significant public health concern. It effectively evades humoral immune protection conferred by vaccines and natural infection due to its continuous viral evolution through the genetic processes of antigenic drift and shift. Recognition of conserved non-mutable viral epitopes by T cells may provide broad immunity against influenza virus. In this study, we have demonstrated that phospholipase A2 group IIE (PLA2G2E) plays a crucial role in protecting against influenza virus infection through the regulation of T cell responses, while not affecting innate and humoral immune responses. Targeting PLA2G2E could therefore represent a potential therapeutic strategy for managing influenza virus infection.